Views:1 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2018-03-14 Origin:Site
The smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC), is any pocket-sized card that has embedded integrated circuits. Smart cards are made of plastic, generally polyvinyl chloride, but sometimes polyethylene-terephthalate-based polyesters.
Smart cards can be contact, contactless, or both. They can provide personal identification, authentication, data storage, and application processing. Smart cards may provide strong security authentication for single sign-on within organizations.
RFID smart cards serve as credit or ATM cards, fuel cards, mobile phone SIMs, authorization cards for pay television, household utility pre-payment cards, high-security identification and access badges, and public transport and public phone payment cards.
Smart cards may also be used as electronic wallets. The smart card chip can be "loaded" with funds to pay parking meters, vending machines or merchants. Cryptographic protocols protect the exchange of money between the RFID card and the machine. No connection to a bank is needed. The holder of the card may use it even if not the owner.
Main articles: Contactless smart card and rfid card
RFID smart cards can authenticate identity. Sometimes they employ a public key infrastructure. The RFID card stores an encrypted digital certificate issued from the PKI provider along with other relevant information. Examples include the U.S. Department of Defense Common Access Card, and other cards used by other governments for their citizens. If they include biometric identification data, RFID smart cards can provide superior two- or three-factor authentication.
Smart cards are not always privacy-enhancing, because the subject may carry incriminating information on the card. Contactless smart cards that can be read from within a wallet or even a garment simplify authentication; however, criminals may access data from these RFID cards.
Smart cards are being provided to students at some schools and colleges. Uses include:
Tracking student attendance.
As an electronic purse, to pay for items at canteens, vending machines, laundry facilities, etc..
Tracking and monitoring food choices at the canteen, to help the student maintain a healthy diet.
Tracking loans from the school library.
Access control for admittance to restricted buildings, dormitories, and other facilities. This requirement may be enforced at all times (such as for a laboratory containing valuable equipment), or just during after-hours periods (such as for an academic building that is open during class times, but restricted to authorized personnel at night), depending on security needs.
Access to transportation services.
Smart health cards can improve the security and privacy of patient information, provide a secure carrier for portable medical records, reduce health care fraud, support new processes for portable medical records, provide secure access to emergency medical information, enable compliance with government initiatives (e.g., organ donation) and mandates, and provide the platform to implement other applications as needed by the health care organization.
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